The main point of the debate seems to be the following: Over the past decades, several research groups of self-proclaimed creationist scientists have claimed discoveries of dinosaur bones that they have managed to date, using radiocarbon dating methods , at some age which is a lot below the ‘usual’ i. The age that these groups claim to find is usually on the order of thousands or tens of thousands of years old. The particular example you bring up is one of the most famous such cases. The claims are really quite spectacular, when taken at face value, and therefore should be examined thoroughly. In this answer, I will try to go through this story in great detail, hopefully exposing the reasons why this work is not taken seriously by scientists. The research by Miller et al. A research team from the CRSEF, or Creation Research, Science Education Foundation, led by Hugh Miller, has claimed to have dated dinosaur bones using radiocarbon methods, determining them to be no older than several dozens of thousands of years old. Let’s look at their research methodology in detail indicated by bullet points: As it turns out, Miller’s research group obtained their sample in quite a remarkable way.
How old are fossils? It can be difficult to determine the age of fossils date the fossils. Scientists can use scientific tests to determine the age of rocks near the fossils. The types of tests are called radiometric dating.
Dating back nearly million years, Sinosauropteryx prima was a game changer among the dozens of spectacular species being mined from early Cretaceous rock formations in China, mainly in.
Physics Organic matter in the fossil record generally dates by carbon 14 C14 dating to about 20, to 40, years. Why are the dates so different? Many creationists believe that radioactive decay was faster in the past. However, in this talk I want to concentrate on reasons to believe the C14 dates are more accurate and that they give evidence that all life on earth is very young. If decay rates were faster in the past, then even the C14 dates could be too old. How Carbon 14 Is Produced and Decays Carbon 14 is an isotope of carbon with two extra neutrons in the nucleus.
It is produced in the upper atmosphere. The rate at which this happens varies to some extent. Perhaps there was less C14 produced in the past, which would imply that even the relatively young C14 dates are too old. Ordinary carbon is carbon 12 C
After that comes a more difficult process: Finding a fossil merely places one organism within a time span. Finding many organisms places the group within a time span.
Dating individual fossils is a relatively straightforward (and approximate) process, outlined below. After that comes a more difficult process: estimating the existence-span of an species. Finding a fossil merely places one organism within a time span.
Language Translation Devices Advisories Supervise children at all times. Children under age 7 years must be accompanied by a person age 14 years or older. This attraction may be frightening for children. Due to the nature of the experience, service animals are not permitted on this attraction. Interests Indoor Rider Switch Rider switch offered. More Information Beginning of tooltip content This attraction offers rider switch, which allows 2 or more adults to take turns waiting with children who are too small to ride, without the need to wait in line twice.
Please ask a Cast Member at the attraction entrance for assistance. End of tooltip content Guest Policies Supervise children at all times. Persons who do not meet the minimum height requirement of 40 inches cm may not ride. Take off on a scary, prehistoric tour aboard a rip-roaring Time Rover to save a dinosaur from extinction. A Joyride to the Dinosaur Age Travel back in time on a perilous race to rescue an Iguanadon before the meteor that wiped out the dinosaurs strikes.
Stefen Chow Smithsonian Magazine Subscribe December In a pine forest in rural northeastern China, a rugged shale slope is packed with the remains of extinct creatures from million years ago, when this part of Liaoning province was covered with freshwater lakes. Volcanic eruptions regularly convulsed the area at the time, entombing untold millions of reptiles, fish, snails and insects in ash. I step gingerly among the myriad fossils, pick up a shale slab not much larger than my hand and smack its edge with a rock hammer.
A seam splits a russet-colored fish in half, producing mirror impressions of delicate fins and bones as thin as human hairs. It was in that Zhou and colleagues announced the discovery of a fossil from this prehistoric disaster zone that heralded a new age of paleontology.
Uranium technique raises dinosaur question 02 February Share A new technique for dating fossils based on uranium’s radioactive properties could mean that palaeontologists will have to revise their theories on the end of the dinosaurs. Larry Heaman holds the sauropod specimen analysed using the new technique Image: University of Alberta A Canadian research team has used a new uranium-lead U-Pb dating technique to show that a fossilised dinosaur bone found in New Mexico is only A team led by Larry Heaman of the University of Alberta’s Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences used the method to determine the age of the fossilised femur of a sauropod, a herbivorous dinosaur.
The in situ U-Pb technique involves laser ablation to remove minute particles of the fossil which then undergo isotopic analysis. The results have now been published in Geology, the journal of the Geological Society of America. Uranium has a half-life of over million years, while uranium has a half-life of about 4. These properties mean that the radioactive decay of uranium to lead has previously been used to measure the age of rocks, including those of some of the oldest on Earth, but its use in direct dating of fossils is new.
Living bone contains very low levels of uranium. During fossilisation — typically within years after death — bone becomes enriched in elements including uranium, which decays spontaneously to lead over time. Therefore by measuring the ratio of uranium to lead in a sample its absolute age can be determined. Currently, palaeontologists date dinosaur fossils by a method called relative chronology, estimating the age of a fossil relative to the known depositional age of the sedimentary rock in which it was found.
However, such methods are far from perfect:
November 14, by Jon Tennant, Public Library of Science You might think dating dinosaurs would be an easy task, but in reality it’s actually quite difficult. We date dinosaurs based on where we find their fossils, using the ages of the rocks that they’re found in. This means that the ‘ages’ of different dinosaurs is actually indirect and constrained by how well we’re able to date the rocks they were found in. Ghosts in the machine As well as this, we know that the occurrences of dinosaur fossils are not accurate representations of their age either.
But carbon dating won’t work on dinosaur bones. The half-life of carbon is only 5, years, so carbon dating is only effective on samples that are less than 50, years old. Dinosaur bones, on the other hand, are millions of years old — some fossils are billions of years old.
So, how do we know how old a fossil is? There are two main methods determining a fossils age, relative dating and absolute dating. Relative dating is used to determine a fossils approximate age by comparing it to similar rocks and fossils of known ages. Absolute dating is used to determine a precise age of a fossil by using radiometric dating to measure the decay of isotopes, either within the fossil or more often the rocks associated with it.
See Article History Alternative Title: Dinosauria Dinosaur, the common name given to a group of reptiles , often very large, that first appeared roughly million years ago near the beginning of the Middle Triassic Epoch and thrived worldwide for nearly million years. Most died out by the end of the Cretaceous Period , about 66 million years ago, but many lines of evidence now show that one lineage evolved into birds about million years ago.
The English anatomist Richard Owen proposed the formal term Dinosauria in to include three giant extinct animals Megalosaurus , Iguanodon , and Hylaeosaurus represented by large fossilized bones that had been unearthed at several locations in southern England during the early part of the 19th century. Owen recognized that these reptiles were far different from other known reptiles of the present and the past for three reasons:
Many fossils have been dated both by racemization and by C14 dating. The conventional time scale assumes that racemization occurs slower and slower as we go back in time. If we assume that racemization occurs at a constant rate, which is a reasonable assumption, then we get a time scale that is more compressed even than the C14 time scale.
This is what archaeologists use to determine the age of human-made artifacts. But carbon dating won’t work on dinosaur bones. The half-life of carbon is only 5, years, so carbon dating is only effective on samples that are less than 50, years old. Dinosaur bones, on the other hand, are millions of years old — some fossils are billions of years old. To determine the ages of these specimens, scientists need an isotope with a very long half-life.
Some of the isotopes used for this purpose are uranium , uranium and potassium , each of which has a half-life of more than a million years. Unfortunately, these elements don’t exist in dinosaur fossils themselves.
These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus slowing decomposition. Stromatolites Lower Proterozoic stromatolites from Bolivia , South America Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms , especially cyanobacteria. While older, Archean fossil remains are presumed to be colonies of cyanobacteria , younger that is, Proterozoic fossils may be primordial forms of the eukaryote chlorophytes that is, green algae.
One genus of stromatolite very common in the geologic record is Collenia. The earliest stromatolite of confirmed microbial origin dates to 2.
How does the dating of dinosaur fossils relate to eyewitness accounts of apparent modern pterosaurs? Those two kinds of creatures have long been assumed to have lived together in the distant past of millions of years ago, at least in the teachings of modern Western societies.
Definition Triceratops skeleton, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Under phylogenetic nomenclature , dinosaurs are usually defined as the group consisting of Triceratops , Neornithes , their most recent common ancestor MRCA , and all descendants. In traditional taxonomy, birds were considered a separate class that had evolved from dinosaurs, a distinct superorder. However, a majority of contemporary paleontologists concerned with dinosaurs reject the traditional style of classification in favor of phylogenetic taxonomy; this approach requires that, for a group to be natural, all descendants of members of the group must be included in the group as well.
Birds are thus considered to be dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, therefore, not extinct. Birds are classified as belonging to the subgroup Maniraptora , which are coelurosaurs , which are theropods, which are saurischians , which are dinosaurs. Norman, and Paul M. Barrett in suggested a radical revision of dinosaurian systematics.
The bone was 68 million years old, and conventional wisdom about fossilization is that all soft tissue, from blood to brains , decomposes. Only hard parts, like bones and teeth, can become fossils. But for some people, the discovery raised a different question. How do scientists know the bones are really 68 million years old? Today’s knowledge of fossil ages comes primarily from radiometric dating, also known as radioactive dating. Radiometric dating relies on the properties of isotopes.
Dating dinosaurs and other fossils Fossils themselves, and the sedimentary rocks they are found in, are very difficult to date directly. Instead, other methods are used to work out a fossil’s age.
James Scott What in the world is this supposed to mean?: The way that the scientific method works is that when scientists discover any empirical data that contradicts their theory or hypothesis, scientists become obliged to either throw out their theory or revise it, so that their theory conforms to the facts. They are not supposed to reinterpret the facts so that the facts conform to their theory. That would be a violation of the scientific method!
And that is precisely what I detect here. Instead of drawing an inference to the best explanation which would be that these bones are not 75 million years old, they are absurdly claiming that it is somehow possible after all for soft tissue and red blood cells to be preserved in natural volatile conditions for over 75 million years.
Jun 09, 1: Laurent Mekul Scientists analyzing fragments of poorly preserved dinosaur bones excavated more than a century ago have discovered what appear to be red blood cells and collagen fibers, soft tissues that thus far have only found rarely, on extremely well-preserved fossils. The discovery — which suggests that soft tissue remnants may be more widespread than thought in dinosaur bones — was something of an accident, said Susannah Maidment , a junior research fellow in the department of earth science and engineering at Imperial College London and co-lead author of a study describing the find published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications.
Travel back in time on a perilous race to rescue an Iguanadon before the meteor that wiped out the dinosaurs strikes. Step inside the pristine halls of The Dino Institute, a one-time secret research facility and museum that is home to real fossils dating back to when dinosaurs walked the earth.
Dinosaur Fossil Dating Many of us tend to think that the only evidence of a fossil is a bone that was carefully preserved in a rock. The truth is that a fossil can take many forms such as a print, nests, and animal droppings. Fossils are important to science because they are our connection to our distant past. And since we have the technology to analyze animal and plant fossils, we can learn more about the biology of extinct creatures and plants.
The experts who do this job are called paleontologists. They have many methods to study fossils.