Life on Earth (TV series)

Blue coloring indicates cartilage, brown represents bone marrow and yellow shows bone. Chan and Longaker et al. If only we could regrow our broken bones like Harry Potter, Skele-gro style. Or, at the very least, heal up like a limb-regenerating newt. Alas, we humans possess no such abilities. Though our bodies can mend broken bones, the older we get, the shoddier that patch job gets. But a new discovery by researchers could change that outlook. A team from Stanford University has finally discovered skeletal stem cells — the cells that give rise to bone, cartilage and the supportive, spongy inside of a bone called stroma — in humans for the first time. And the hope is that someday, doctors could use these stem cells to help people regrow broken bones and missing cartilage. A Break in the Case First, a quick primer on a couple of types of stem cells of which there are many.


Since many are dependent on others for food or means of reproduction, David Attenborough argues that they couldn’t all have appeared at once. He sets out to discover which came first, and the reasons for such diversity. Fossils provide evidence of the earliest life, and Attenborough travels a vertical mile into the Grand Canyon in search of them.

By the time he reaches the Colorado River bed, the geological strata are 2, million years old—yet there are no fossils. However, the “right rocks” are found on the shores of Lake Superior in Canada, where wafer-thin slices of flint , called chert, reveal filaments of primitive algae. Also, the micro-organisms that flourish at Yellowstone Park in Wyoming appear to be identical to the Earth’s oldest fossils.

If working with tissues or cells that have Fc receptors (thymus, spleen, blood, leukocytes, B cells etc.), choose an F(ab)2 fragment when possible to eliminate non-specific binding through Fc receptors present on cells.

By Andrew Jenner March 28, 1: Heinrich Frank It was in that Amilcar Adamy first investigated rumors of an impressive cave in southern Brazil. After asking around, he eventually found his way to a gaping hole on a wooded slope a few miles north of the Bolivian border. Those caves looked nothing like this large, round passage with a smooth floor. Heinrich Frank, a professor at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, was zipping down the highway on a Friday afternoon when he passed a construction site in the town of Novo Hamburgo.

There, in a bank where excavators had eaten away half of a hill, he saw a peculiar hole. It was a single shaft, about 15 feet long; at its end, while on his back, he found what looked like claw marks all over the ceiling. Claw marks are clear signs from the engineers who dug the tunnel. Heinrich Frank Surveying a mile stretch of highway construction near the city of Porto Alegre, for example, Frank and his students identified paleoburrows in more than 70 percent of road cuts.

Although many are completely filled with sediment, they remain readily apparent, standing out like dark, round knots in a dirt bank. When Frank found a suitable passage, he squeezed through an elliptical shaft roughly four-feet wide, feet long and lined with claw marks.


Medium spiny neurons , most neurons in the corpus striatum. Purkinje cells , huge neurons in the cerebellum, a type of Golgi I multipolar neuron. Pyramidal cells , neurons with triangular soma, a type of Golgi I. Renshaw cells , neurons with both ends linked to alpha motor neurons. Unipolar brush cells , interneurons with unique dendrite ending in a brush-like tuft. Granule cells , a type of Golgi II neuron.

The pancreas is a digestive organ in that all its functions relate to digestion and the regulation of nutrients entering the blood pancreas stores many of the enzymes it produces, waiting for a signal to release them into the intestines.

The first pieces of lab-grown livers could be used in hospitals within just five years, the researchers said. A decellularised rat liver retaining its network of blood vessels, a technique grown by scientists which could be used to grow livers for human transplants Patches of artificial tissue could be used to repair livers damaged by injury, disease, alcohol abuse and paracetamol overdose. Other possibilities include sections of artificial livers to keep those needing transplants alive — in much the same way as a dialysis machine is used to treat kidney failure.

Donated but damaged liver bathed in detergent to remove the cells. All that remains is a ‘scaffold’ made of collagen and blood vessels. Scaffold is seeded with healthy liver cells, made from the stem cells created from the patient’s skin. The new liver is used to replace the patient’s damaged one. As it is made from their own cells, the body will not reject it.

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The journey takes minutes. Student and senior tickets cost 72 SEK each way. A ticket for youth under 20 costs 60 SEK each way. Four children up to age 16 travel free with full paying adult. You can’t buy tickets with cash on board, but credit cards are accepted.

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Controversy[ edit ] Anthropologist Helen Fisher in What happens in the dating world can reflect larger currents within popular culture. For example, when the book The Rules appeared, it touched off media controversy about how men and women should relate to each other, with different positions taken by columnist Maureen Dowd of The New York Times [56] and British writer Kira Cochrane of The Guardian. Sara McCorquodale suggests that women meeting strangers on dates meet initially in busy public places, share details of upcoming dates with friends or family so they know where they’ll be and who they’ll be with, avoid revealing one’s surname or address, and conducting searches on them on the Internet prior to the date.

Don’t leave drinks unattended; have an exit plan if things go badly; and ask a friend to call you on your cell phone an hour into the date to ask how it’s going. If you explain beautifully, a woman does not look to see whether you are handsome or not — but listens more, so you can win her heart. That is why I advise our boys to read stories and watch movies more and to learn more beautiful phrases to tell girls. The Internet is shaping the way new generations date. Facebook , Skype , Whatsapp , and other applications have made remote connections possible.

Online dating tools are an alternate way to meet potential dates.

Portal:Paleontology/Selected article

Distinguishing characteristics[ edit ] Salticidae male anterior and dorsal aspects, showing positions of eyes Jumping spiders are among the easiest to distinguish from similar spider families because of the shape of the cephalothorax and their eye patterns. The families closest to Salticidae in general appearance are the Corinnidae distinguished also by prominent spines on the back four legs , the Oxyopidae the lynx spiders, distinguished by very prominent spines on all legs , and the Thomisidae the crab spiders, distinguished by their front four legs, which are very long and powerful.

None of these families however, has eyes that resemble those of the Salticidae. Conversely, the legs of jumping spiders are not covered with any very prominent spines.

The origin of speech refers to the more general problem of the origin of language in the context of the physiological development of the human speech organs such as the tongue, lips and vocal organs used to produce phonological units in all human languages.

As zoologist Coffin stated: If this fossil history does not agree with evolutionary theory — and we have seen that it does not — what does it teach? It tells us that plants and animals were created in their basic forms. The basic facts of the fossil record support creation, not evolution. Harold Coffin was a researcher for the Geoscience Research Institute and a witness for the defense in the State of Arkansas ‘ bid to allow the teaching of creation science in school.

Life again quotes Coffin to support its claim that Cambrian organisms lacked ancestors: If progressive evolution from simple to complex is correct, the ancestors of these full-blown living creatures in the Cambrian should be found; but they have not been found and scientists admit there is little prospect of their ever being found. On the basis of the facts alone, on the basis of what is actually found in the earth, the theory of a sudden creative act in which the major forms of life were established fits best.

Eye See the main article. So that the number of intermediate and transitional links, between all living and extinct species, must have been inconceivably great. But assuredly, if this theory be true, such have lived upon the earth. Independently of our not finding fossil remains of such infinitely numerous connecting links, it may be objected that time cannot have sufficed for so great an amount of organic change, all changes having been effected slowly.

It is hardly possible for me to recall to the reader who is not a practical geologist, the facts leading the mind feebly to comprehend the lapse of time. He who can read Sir Charles Lyell’s grand work on the Principles of Geology, which the future historian will recognise as having produced a revolution in natural science, and yet does not admit how vast have been the past periods of time, may at once close this volume.

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Introduction What is ‘Magnetic Therapy’? Put simply, it is the use of magnets to treat or ease the symptoms of various diseases and conditions, including pain. There are excellent articles on the Internet explaining and debunking magnetic therapy and we will provide links to some of these at the end of this essay. However we don’t wish to just restate this information, so the main focus of this essay will be to explore some ‘what if’ scenarios.

What if magnetic therapy really did work the way magnetic therapy proponents say it does? How would our bodies really react?

Dating; Medical. How to spot the early signs of Parkinson’s Disease typically affects those aged over 55 and is caused by a build-up of clumps of a protein called alpha synuclein in brain.

By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. Scientists at NASA have found that radiation exposure sustained on a trip to Mars or further into space could result in major damage to astronauts’ stomachs and intestines, resulting in long term problems. Astronauts could suffer problems which could lead to their death, such as an inability to absorb nutrients or even develop cancer. They discovered the issue by exposing mice to doses of charged iron particles, or ions, known to be one of the most harmful forms of galactic cosmic radiation.

The aim was to simulate what astronauts would experience in deep space. The mice exposed to the heavy ions failed to absorb nutrients properly, formed cancerous polyps, and exhibited signs of an increasing number of cells that stopped dividing. The researchers also found that exposure to heavy ions on space trips could cause impairment to brain tissue and accelerated ageing.

Dr Kamal Datta, the lead scientist at NASA’s specialised centre of research at Georgetown university, said it was difficult to protect astronauts from harmful effects of radiation with the current technology.

GCSE Biology Specialised cells (AQA 9-1)

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